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On the usefulness of Badal optometer to stimulate accommodation

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M. Aldaba1,2, J. Pujol1,2, C. Otero1,2 

Centre for Sensors, Instruments and Systems Development, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain; Davalor Research Center, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain

Purpose

To analyze the performance of the Badal optometer for monocular accommodative stimulation by comparison with stimulation by means of real space targets.

Methods

Accommodation was stimulated at 5.00 D by means of pushup method with an openfield real space target (configuration 1) and a closedfield Badal optometer with reduced field of view (2.5 degrees) and without depth cues (configuration 2). Moreover, 3 more configurations were used to isolate the effect of: stimulation method (real vs. Badal targets), field of view (2.5 vs. 15 degrees) and peripheral interposition of targets in depth (empty vs. depth cues). The accommodative response (AR) was measured with the WAM5500 autorefractometer.

 

Results

28 eyes of 28 subjects were included in the study, with a mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of 24.29 ± 2.12 years (18 to 27 years), monocular corrected visual acuity of 0.14 ± 0.06 logMAR (0.20 to 0.02) and subjective amplitude of accommodation of 9.47 ± 1.91 D (7.14 to 15.38 D). The repeated measures ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in the AR among configurations (p<0.05). The Bonferroni posthoc tests comparing real (configuration 1) versus Badal optometer (configuration 2) showed a mean AR difference ± SD (pvalue) of 0.58 ± 0.53 D (p<0.05). The AR difference due to the different variables was: stimulation method 0.11 ± 0.48 D (p=1.00), field of view 0.13 ± 0.43 D (p=1.00) and interposition of targets in depth 0.29 ± 0.36 D (p<0.05).

Conclusions

AR can differ significantly when stimulated by means of pushup method with openfield real space targets and a closedfield Badal optometer. However, our results suggest that stimulation method by itself is not enough to achieve significant differences. Other factors as field of view and the interposition of objects in depth play a role to explain these differences. In this sense, Badal optometers including larger fields of view and the interposition of objects in depth could improve the AR up to acceptable differences.

On the usefulness of Badal optometer to stimulate accommodation

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